Biblical Sources

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Tanach – The Torah, the Prophets and the Hagiographa

This page is an unfinished translation and expansion from the Hebrew page, תורה, נביאים וכתובים. Bold text on this page indicates what content appears in the Hebrew page.


  • 3:16 – "Go and gather the elders of Israel and say to them: 'Hashem, the G-d of your forefathers, has appeared to me – the G-d of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob – saying: 'I have surely remembered you and what was done to you in Egypt.' "
  • 3:18 – "They [the elders] will listen to your voice, and you and the elders of Israel shall come to the king of Egypt, and you shall say to him, 'Hashem, the G-d of the Hebrews, happened upon us....' "
  • 18:21 – "And you will discern [prophetically, through Ruach HaKodesh – Rashi] from all the people men of valor who fear G-d, men of truth who hate money; and you shall set over them leaders of thousands, leaders of hundreds, leaders of fifties, and leaders of tens."
  • 18:22 – "They [the leaders] will judge the people at all times...."
  • 18:24 – "Moses listened to his father-in-law's voice and he did everything that he had said." Note: Until Moses implemented his father-in-law Jethro's suggestion to set up sub-courts within Israel, he handled the entire nation's questions himself, an extremely tiring job. See Exodus 18:13-23.
  • 18:25 – "Moses chose men of valor from all of Israel and appointed them to lead the people: leaders of thousands, leaders of hundreds, leaders of fifties, and leaders of tens."
  • 18:26 – "They [the leaders] judged the people at all times...."
  • 19:17 – "Moses took the people out from the camp to receive G-d and they stood at the bottom of the mountain."
  • 24:1 – "And He said to Moses: 'Come up to Hashem – you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel – and you shall prostrate yourselves from a distance.' "
  • 24:7 – "He took the Book of the Covenant, and he read in the ears of the people, and they said: 'We will do and we will listen to everything that Hashem said!' "
  • 34:27 – "Hashem said to Moses: 'Write for yourself these words, because according to these words I have sealed a covenant with you and with Israel.' "


  • 18:5 – "You shall guard my decrees and my laws, which man shall perform and live by them – I am Hashem."
  • 19:32 – "You shall rise before an old person, and you shall honor an elder's presence, and you shall revere your G-d – I am Hashem."
  • 19:33-34 – "When a convert dwells in your land, you shall not taunt him. The convert who dwells with you shall be like a native among you; you shall love him as yourself, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt – I am Hashem your G-d."


  • 11:16 – "Hashem said to Moses: 'Gather seventy men to Me from the elders of Israel whom you know, for these are the elders of the people and its officers; you shall take them to the Tent of Meeting and have them stand there with you."
  • 11:17 – "I will descend and speak with you there, and I will increase a portion of the spirit that is on you and set it upon them [the seventy leaders]; they will bear the burden of the people with you, and you will not bear it alone."


  • 16:18 – "You shall appoint judges and officers for yourselves in all your communities which Hashem your G-d gives to you, to your tribes; they shall judge the people with righteous judgement."
  • 17:8 – "When a matter of judgment is hidden from you – between blood and blood, between law and law, and between plague and plague, some matter of disagreement in your your communities – you shall rise and go up to the place that Hashem your G-d will choose."
  • 17:9 – "You shall come to the Kohanim, the Levites, and to the judge that shall be in those days; you shall ask and they will tell you the word of judgment."
  • 17:10 – "You shall act according to the word that they tell you, from that place that Hashem will choose; and you shall be careful to act according to everything that they teach you."
  • 17:11 – "According to the Torah that they will teach you and the judgment that they will tell you shall you act; do not turn from the matter that they tell you, right or left."
  • 31:21 – "...For it [the Torah] will not be forgotten from the mouth of its descendants...."
  • 33:4 – "The Torah that Moses commanded to us is the heritage of the Congregation of Jacob."

Samuel II

  • 18:23 – "And the counsel of Ahitophel which he advised at that time was as if man had asked for the word of G-d; all of Ahitophel's counsel was like so...."


  • 1:25 – "And I will return My hand to upon you and scour your dross as with lye and I will remove all your alloy."
  • 1:26 – "And I will return your judges as at first, and your counselors as before; after this they will call you a city of righteousness, a faithful city."

I, Chaim Leib Halbert, certify that the above translations from the Tanach are my own work, and I hereby release them to the public domain.